The function of a cooling tower is to take away heat from course of fluids. A typical utility is cooling the recent condenser water in a cooling tower, where it is distributed onto fill surfaces and exposed to air move to facilitate evaporation and elimination of heat from the water. The cooled condenser water is returned to the chiller to remove heat again from the refrigerant. In a counter circulate cooling tower tremendous water droplets are sprayed on mechanically induced upward moving air. The overall cooling impact could be improved by increasing the peak of the tower, which will increase the space of water fall and maximize the full time of contact between air and water and thereby improve the number of equilibrium stages of mass switch and heat transfer within the cooling tower. However, one can solely use this precept to a restricted extent due to structural and economic limitations. Fills play vital function to extend the floor space of water uncovered to air and thus promote efficient contact between water and air and maximize water evaporation.
Heat transfer and Mass switch fundamentals
In a cooling tower each Heat transfer and Mass transfer proceed collectively. When air with certain humidity [ not saturated with water or with humidity 100] comes in contact with water , there is a mass transfer of water vapor from water to air and this course of goes on till air is totally saturated with water vapor. The relative humidity of the incoming air which signifies how moist the air is decides how much water vapor air can accept from water relying on the house the air has to take water vapor till it becomes saturated or its RH reaches a hundred%. At RH=100%, air has no more capability to take any water. Relative humidity is the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air can “hold” at that temperature. When the air can’t “hold” all the moisture, then it condenses as dew. RH depends upon the ambient temperature or the dry bulb temperature of air. Therefore, briefly, the key to understanding relative humidity is to know that it is a measure of the ‘actual humidity relative to the maximum possible humidity at a given temperature.
RH % =[Moisture within the air / Maximum attainable moisture air can hold at the present temperature] x100
As unsaturated air stream mixes with water stream air pulls water vapor from water to succeed in its moisture equilibrium with water and this triggers the mass switch of water vapor from water to air. This wants heat to vaporize water. The air and water mixture releases latent heat of vaporization which has a cooling effect on water by converting a specific amount of liquid into its gaseous state thereby releasing the latent heat of vaporization. That is what is known as ‘evaporative cooling There can be sensible heat switch between water and air in the cooling tower. When water is warmer than the air, air cools the water. As air will get hotter because it rises via the cooling tower and features the wise heat of the water and the water is cooled as its smart heat is transferred to the air. Since the precise heat of air is small in comparison with water the impression of amount of heat achieve or loss by air on its temperature is smaller than water underneath equivalent condition.
Approximately 25% of the wise heat switch takes place in the tower while the stability of the seventy five% cooling is due to the evaporative effect of latent heat of vaporization.
Dry bulb temperature
Dry bulb temperature is the temperature of air as read on the abnormal thermometer. The Dry bulb temperature refers back to the ambient air temperature. It is named “Dry Bulb” as a result of the air temperature is indicated by a thermometer not affected by the moisture of the air.
Wet bulb temperature
Wet bulb temperature is the reading of temperature when the bulb of a thermometer is lined with a wet cloth. The rate of evaporation from the wet cloth on the bulb and the temperature distinction between the dry bulb and wet bulb, is dependent upon the humidity of the air Wet bulb temperature is an important consider performance of evaporative water cooling. It is the bottom temperature to which water may be cooled in a cooling tower. The wet bulb temperature of the air coming into the cooling tower determines the minimal operating temperature throughout the cooling process in a cooling tower. At wet bulb temperature the air is totally saturated with water vapor. RH is 100%. Air has no space to achieve any additional moisture and due to this fact there isn’t any set off for any mass transfer of moisture from water to air. When the RH is 100% the wet bulb temperature is identical because the dry bulb temperature. The lower the wet bulb temperature, which signifies cool air, low humidity or a mixture of the two, the decrease the cooling tower cools the water. The thermal efficiency of the cooling tower is thus determined by the coming into wet bulb temperature ; the entering air dry bulb temperature relatively has much less vital effect on thermal performance of a cooling tower.
In precise follow, the ultimate chilly water temperature is always a couple of levels above wet bulb temperature.
The Dew level is the temperature at which water vapor begins to condense out of the air. This is the temperature at which air turns into fully saturated. The Dew Level temperature is all the time decrease than the Dry bulb temperature and is identical with one hundred% relative humidity. In saturated air with relative humidity one hundred% the wet bulb, dry bulb and dew point temperatures are all the same. If one must cool dry air with out adding or removing any water vapor, the dew point would stay constant while the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures would fall. If one have to evaporate instantly inside the air enough water vapor to lift the relative humidity to a hundred%, the wet bulb would stay the same, while the dew point would rise and the dry bulb temperature would fall
At a gentle state in a cooling tower following circumstances prevail:
The heat removed from the water must be equal to the heat absorbed by the encompassing air.
L (T1 T2) = G (h2 h1)
L/G = (h2 h1) / (T1 T2)
L/G = liquid to air mass movement ratio, T1 = scorching water temperature, T2 = cold-water temperature, h2 = enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture at exhaust wet-bulb temperature, h1 = enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture at inlet wet-bulb temperature.
Water vapor diffuses from the interface to the bulk air phase as a result of humidity in bulk air is lower than the interface. The driving force for this diffusion is (hi hG).
Smart heat flows from the majority liquid to the water-air interface; the driving force for this thermal switch is TL –TI
Sensible heat flows from the interface to the majority air part; the driving power for this thermal transfer is TI TG.
Latent heat of evaporation flows from the interface to the bulk phase.
TL = Temperature of water, TI = Temperature at interface, TG= Temperature of air, hello = Humidity at interface, hG- Humidity in air section.
Understanding Heat switch and Mass switch in a cooling tower by Psychrometric chart
Let us analyze a typical case utilizing Psychrometric chart
Operating key parameters of cooling tower
L/G = 1, Inlet air dry bulb temperature = sixty five deg F and RH = 50% and Outlet air dry bulb temperature = 70 deg F and RH = 98%
What is occurring to air because it moves upward inside the cooling tower?
Air enters the tower at sixty five deg F and 50%RH. Throughout its transit by the tower it begins to achieve moisture and enthalpy (total heat) to succeed in equilibrium with the water, and continues this technique of equilibrium until it exits the tower at dry bulb temperature 70 deg F and 98%RH. Assumed, that the burden of air [dry weight] and water each are 1 lb [L/G=1]. During the transit of this one pound of air by way of the tower, a number of notable changes have taken place. Allow us to analyze them one after the other by using Psychrometric chart.
The heat content of air modified from 23 BTU at inlet to 34.2 BTU at outlet. This enthalpy increase of eleven.2 BTU was gained from the water. Since, a BTU is equal to the heat acquire or loss required to vary the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1°F, which means the temperature of one pound of water was decreased by eleven.2 deg F. This is the cooling of water.
The moisture content material of air elevated from about 50 grains at inlet to about a hundred and ten grains at outlet. (7000 grains = 1 lb.) This increase of 60 grains (0.0086 lbs.) represents whole evaporation from 1 lb water. This stands at zero.86%. Taking latent heat of vaporization at 1040 BTU, 0.0086*1040 BTU heat was removed as latent heat. That is equal to eight.9 BTU and this is seventy nine% of the full heat [11.2 BTU] faraway from water.