By explaining some suggestions and tips, possibly extra water remedy dealers can understand these applied sciences and use them in their arsenal of remedy strategies. Filtration, ozonation, copper ionization and UV mild may not be an option on some water supplies or applications, but their usefulness and alternatives to chemical dosing should be considered as an possibility.
Cooling towers are needed to dissipate heat, but the complications arising in doing so are maintenance headaches and, in some situations, disease-causing issues. Bio-slimes and algae growth can and have induced bacterial contamination in cooling techniques. Legionnaires disease and pneumonia have been blamed for deaths and traced again to cooling methods. Water and air can transport many pathogens and are liable for a host of issues associated to inadequate disinfection. Chemicals are utilized in cooling tower systems to manage scale, bio-slimes and algae growth. These chemicals flocculate iron and manganese from the influent water and contain biocides to manage micro organism. Softened water is just not used because the mineral deposits cause scale and cut back the effectiveness of the cooling coils, in addition to growing upkeep and labor costs at keeping the coils clean and operating efficiently. There are alternatives available on the market that when utilized properly supply better management of bacteria.
Ozone and ionization have been used for a few years to fight scale and bacterial points related to cooling tower operation. Ozone has not been as widely adopted as chemicals because many times it is not utilized or carried out correctly and the tip user does not expertise the meant chemical reduction and easy operation of the cooling system. Ultraviolet (UV) gentle has been used to control micro organism, fungus and bio-slimes. Scaling issues and maintenance as a result of improper application have hindered UV from being extensively accepted. By explaining some ideas and tips, possibly more water remedy dealers can perceive these applied sciences and use them in their arsenal of remedy strategies.
It is estimated that there are 500,000 to 600,000 cooling towers within the United States that use chemicals as a result of they’re accepted and confirmed strategies of therapy. Of the half million or more towers, it is estimated only 300 to 1,000 use ozone and even less use copper ionization. Cooling towers that use ozone, copper ionization or UV light along with each other are only a few and much between. Why, you may ask, if these treatment strategies work so properly, are they not used more typically? Value is an enormous factor in using ozone, copper ionization and UV. The initial begin up prices are costly, however the return on funding is slightly fast when properly put in and monitored. Most water treatment sellers who do not perceive the applied sciences simply don’t use them, or if they do one job and it fails, they don’t discover out why they usually cease selling these nice alternate options to chemical dosing. Regardless of the case may be, these techniques do work when applied appropriately.
Each water therapy system that’s employed must have the influent water addressed so as to effectively design proper remedy. There is extra to water than total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness and iron, which many dealers test as a part of a free analysis. Different contaminants such as manganese, chlorides, tannins and nitrates can change the way the designed system capabilities. City water or municipal water supplies are easier to work with than properly water provides, since the water is treated and incorporates mostly hardness minerals and chlorine. Nicely water, then again, makes water treatment a challenge. Iron, manganese, chlorides, sulfates, nitrates and tannins could make the remedy of cooling tower water very difficult. The influent water needs to be closely analyzed so that it can be treated properly. The movement charges and gear used also must be matched mathematically so as to perform optimally.
One among the largest errors made in treating cooling tower water isn’t pretreating the influent water. For example, with out the pretreatment of water for reverse osmosis and UV mild drinking water techniques, these water remedy strategies fail or do not work effectively. So, why not deal with cooling water in the identical trend. If there’s iron and manganese in the water, why treat the water after it’s in the make up tank? Maybe chemicals appear to price lower than eradicating the iron and manganese with filtration, but after taking a look at labor, chemicals and blow down discharge prices, eradicating the contaminants with filtration could be very cost efficient. Blow down often is completed once the water reaches a set saturation or TDS stage. Without the usage of chemicals the TDS wouldn’t rise and there wouldn’t be a need to discharge as a lot water. This is able to replicate a value savings on chemicals, labor and discharge charges. Pretreatment can also save cash when purchasing different methods of remedy akin to ozone, ionization and UV. With the elimination of iron and manganese, the amount of ozone needed to treat the water could be diminished, for the reason that ozone would not need to react with the contaminants first to be effective against bacteria, algae, and bio-slimes. Since ozone is an oxidizer it reacts with different contaminants which can be known as biological oxygen demands (BODs) and chemical oxygen demands (CODs). By decreasing the calls for on the ozone, the quantity of ozone wanted is reduced, which, in turn, decreases the price of using ozone as a remedy technique. UV mild would not have as much scaling and maintenance involved. Copper ionization would work extra effectively since the copper wouldn’t be binding to the iron and would cut back the copper’s ability to regulate micro organism.
Now that the water is free from iron and manganese or different contaminants which are eliminated by pretreatment, what can we do with hardness minerals since softened water is just not used? Some firms have used magnets to fight this downside and have been very profitable. Nonetheless, the magnet controversy within the water trade still prevails. Again, if matched mathematically with movement charges and contaminant levels then this might be an alternative.
A good bigger profit would be using copper ionization. Because of its electrical charge, this type of treatment has good scale decreasing properties, and the small quantity of copper in the water reduces bacteria and algae. Copper ionization’s advantages are two-fold. Hardness minerals from municipal and properly water supplies will be managed with ionization and, if UV have been installed, ionization would assist keep the quartz sleeves or coiled tubes that protect the bulb from scaling. In some applications, ozone is probably not as effective at controlling scale.
Sizing tools will be time consuming, and that is another purpose many water sellers have not pursued this market enviornment. There may be nothing more disconcerting than spending priceless time designing a system and proposing a bid and not getting the sale. What is even worse is getting the job and having the equipment not operate correctly and ending up with a discontented buyer because his capital funding will see no return. One missed variable within the calculation can cause a multitude of problems sooner or later. Not understanding how the technologies perform are other factors that contribute in design flaws of using chemical alternate options. The influent water evaluation, the amount of water and the move charges are three of an important parameters in treating any water supply, but the compatibility of the appliance and technologies used play a significant position.
Unfortunately there are no easily understood “lower-and-dried” formulation for sizing tools. There are some existing formulas, however they are ambiguous and never pertinent to each software. Parameters that have to be thought of are the dimensions of the cooling tower, which is measured in tons; the amount of water that’s in the make-up tank; the amount of water that is in the distribution system; the quantity of evaporation that may take place; the local weather to which the cooling tower is exposed; the amount of blow down; the amount of influent water wanted to substitute evaporation on scorching or cooler days; the kinds of supplies of which the system is constructed which are compatible with ozone; the place the unit can be placed; the injection factors of the ozone, UV gentle or copper for correct dispersion; and off gassing of the ozone. As we are able to see, there are many variables in figuring the proper remedy, and one missed variable can render the system ineffective.
Ozone does not depart a residual. If there are areas too far from the injection level, the amount of ozone at these areas won’t be efficient enough to kill the bacteria, thus bio-slimes can kind. UV mild does not add anything to the water so if there are microorganisms that are not destroyed they, too, could cause development within the system. Copper ionization will help on this management, but improper copper levels can also lead to problems. Ozone needs to be monitored and controlled with ORP meters or redox controllers to be the best. A little little bit of ozone goes a good distance, and by controlling the degrees of ozone, such problems as corrosion or the destroying of pumps and gaskets can be minimal. Trying to determine water usage can be tough and should be carefully calculated. Measuring the tank and piping may give good approximations of how a lot water is within the system, however evaporation will range drastically relying on climate and weather circumstances to which the cooling tower is subjected. The quantity of blow down will probably be diminished since chemicals are lowered and TDS levels will not enhance as rapidly.
Consider the option
Filtration, ozonation, copper ionization and UV gentle is probably not an option on some water provides or purposes, however their usefulness and alternatives to chemical dosing ought to be thought of as an choice. Water supplies with contaminants, that are exhausting to take away is perhaps treatable only with chemicals, although when these technological developments are understood, there are methods to make use of the constructive benefits synergistically. There is not one water therapy technique in the marketplace that may be a cure for all water problems or makes use of, but when employed with one another, these methods might be extraordinarily advantageous for the appliance and buyer’s wants.
Knowledge Is Power
There are various ozone, copper ionization, filtration and UV manufacturers in the marketplace that have used their merchandise in cooling tower applications. Each has his own idea on how his equipment performs, however when used along with other applied sciences he sometimes will be misinformed or not educated enough on the capabilities of how his tools can benefit, when used together with different technologies. Jumping on the bandwagon to deal with cooling towers would be a mistake for many water dealers which are going to try and make a fast dollar. This course of is time consuming and educationally taxing. Many types of water should not going to be favorable to such a remedy and the price elements are going to maintain corporations from using the expertise unless a return on funding can be established. The impression that chemical options could have on the environment is large and really constructive worldwide. With persistence and dedication, many water treatment professionals will be successful.
Finding out articles and books (some listed at the top of this text) can be smart, and doing research with pilot testing is really helpful. A great background in chemistry, physics and microbiology may be very beneficial in deploying a very good system design that may give a return on funding for the buyer. Understanding how bio-movies form and the way the technologies work will assist avoid the pitfalls of disinfection with chemical options. Unfortunately, this column doesn’t provide enough area for a full clarification of utilizing these kind of methods on cooling towers. Session with skilled professionals and manufacturers is advisable.